FREL and BUR: Indonesian Aptly Strategies in Reducing Emissions
Bogor, October 30, 2015
On September 18, 2015, the Ministry of Environment and Forests of Indonesia (KLHK) through the Director General of Climate Change officially launched to public two important documents in the climate change negotiations, namely the Forest References Emission Level (FREL) and Biennial Update Report (BUR). Many parties considered that the launching of the document is very strategic because for two months Indonesia will submit the documents to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Indonesian FREL Document
FREL is the level of emissions from land use change and forests that are used as a reference for emission reduction performance in the implementation of REDD+. The parties are advised to use FREL document as a basis for projecting future activities. The action plan to reduce emissions at province and district levels can be used as a reference level FREL emission reduction.
In her speech, the Director General of Climate Change, Nur Marispatin said that “FREL is the basis for measuring the performance of the reduction of emissions and deforestation that will be the basis for an incentive to the performance of emission reduction in Indonesia in the activity of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). REDD+ is a program or efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, degradation of forests and peatlands”.
Land cover classes used in the preparation FREL are 23 classes of land cover and has been adapted to the land cover classes of IPCC as 6 classes. Six classes according to the IPCC, namely: forests, plantations, reeds, wetlands, settlements and open land.
The launching of FREL document to public indicates that Indonesia is ready with the data of deforestation and forest degradation. This shows that Indonesia be more transparent in managing the forest. The time period used in arrange of Indonesian FREL document namely from the year 1990 to 2012. Data for 22 years shows that, Indonesia has been sufficient to establish a future scenario.
Regarding the definition of forests in FREL, according to Nur Marispatin refers to the Ministerial Decree No. 14 of 2004 on A/R CDM. Forests in the formal definition has a minimum area of 0.25 ha, trees can reach a height of 5 meters and land cover more than 30%".
The things that into question by various stakeholders in Indonesia on the definition of deforestation and degradation are also mentioned in FREL. Deforestation is defined as the conversion of natural forests to other land cover categories that occur once in a given time. While degradation in FREL is the change in grade of primary forest into secondary forests.
BUR of Indonesia
Unlike the case with FREL documents intended only for the forestry sector, the BUR is dedicated to all sectors, namely, forestry, agriculture, energy, industry and waste. The reference period used in the document is the year 2000-2012. Basis of calculation using the calculation of gain and loss. The documents also include emissions from peat fires by using a grid approach.
Based on BUR's document, from 2000 to 2012 emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise, unless the sector industries. Emissions from the energy sector 4,6 percent, agriculture 1,3 percent and 4,0 percent waste. While the industrial sector is relatively less than 1 percent.
During the period 2008-2014 the Indonesian government has received a total of Rp 1,178 trillion from Rp 3,04 trillion commitment that comes from the support of bilateral and multilateral institutions. Until 2014, six ministries and one of the local government has identified 15 mitigation activities that require international financing support activities as NAMAs. This activity mostly for the year 2015-2020 with a total investment of US $ 870 million.
In the document also mentioned five sectors emitters years 2000 and 2012. From 2000 to 2012, CO2e emissions for all sectors increased.
The largest contributor to emissions in 2012 are forestry and peat which amounted to 47,8 percent or 694.978 giga grams of carbon dioxide. Then, the energy sector accounted for 34,9 percent or 508.120 giga grams of carbon dioxide. Continued agricultural sector of 7,8 percent, equivalent to 112.727 giga grams of carbon dioxide. Then followed by the waste sector 6,7 per cent and 2,8 per cent of the industrial sector.
As it is known that in Presidential Regulation No. 61 of 2011 has been mentioned emission reduction target of 26% by 2020, or equivalent 0,767 gigatons of CO2e with domestic financing. Whereas with the joint cooperation of friendly countries, Indonesia planned emission reductions of 41% or equivalent 1,189 gigatons of CO2e.
Based on BUR's document also mentioned that Indonesia has done as much as 45 mitigation actions from all sectors. The amount of emission reductions for 2010-2012 is approximately 41,29 million tons of CO2e or 0,01376 Gt CO2e annually.
In addition to mitigation actions based on Presidential Decree 61/2011, Indonesia already had 27 other mitigation actions consisting of 4 activities is NAMAs and 23 other activities outside the regulation 61/2011. Emission reductions that have been generated during the reported period around 5,09 million tonnes of CO2e (0,00509 Gt CO2e), or approximately 1,70 Mt CO2e (0,00170 Gt CO2e) per year.
From the several examples above shows that Indonesia has successfully conducted emissions reduction based on the level of reference that have been made. With the presence BUR and FREL documents that have been launched by the Director General for Climate Change Control, Nur Marispatin, believed that Indonesia's emission reduction plan can be more systematic, measurable, transparent and verifiable. The presence of BUR and FREL document could be considered as a step aptly Indonesia in the action plan to reduce emissions.
Source: Green Indonesia Megazine/Number 1 Year I/2015