The Main Results of COP 21, Paris
Bogor, January 19, 2016
Climate negotiations (COP 21) of
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was
held in Paris on 30 November to 13 December 2015. This meeting is a
historic meeting because it produces the first binding agreement
(legally binding) since the Kyoto Protocol was born at the COP 3.
Paris agreement aims to stop global
warming temperature of no more than 2 degrees Celsius. And for that,
every country needs to include a commitment on how much carbon dioxide
emissions will be reduced.
Paris agreement was supported at
least 195 countries, including the two biggest producers of carbon
emissions the world, namely the United States and China.
The main points of the Paris
Agreement, among other things:
- The purpose agreement is to limit
global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial
levels and make efforts to limit it to below 1.5 degrees Celsius.
- Each country will strive to achieve
the highest levels (peaking) as soon as possible globally. Each country
will submit contributions decrease emissions every 5 (five) years.
- Contributions to reduce the emissions
must increase each period, and developing countries need support to increase
- Each country is encouraged to
support the policy approaches and positive incentives for actions for
reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and
sustainable forest management, conservation and enhancement of forest
carbon stocks (REDD +), including through the result-based payments.
- The mechanism of market and non-market
can be used by countries in order to reduce emissions and recognized in
the Paris Agreement.
- Related to adaptation, the global
goal is to increase adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce
vulnerability to climate change. The countries are expected to deliver
and update periodically priorities, implementation, and the need to
support adaptation actions.
- Recognized the importance of
minimizing and addressing loss and damage as a result of the adverse
effects of climate change.
- Developed countries should provide
financial support to developing countries and lead in the mobilization
of funds from various sources. Moreover, developing countries may also
provide voluntary support.
- The whole country will enhance
cooperative action in the field of technology development and transfer.
In addition, capacity building will be undertaken to increase the capacity
and capabilities of developing countries.
- In order to build trust and improve
the effectiveness of implementation, transparency stronger framework
established which covers action and support, with the flexibility for
developing countries. This framework is the development of existing ones
under the Convention.
- The implementation action of global
stocktake in order to achieve a deal will be done in 2023 and then
regularly every 5 (five) years.
- The agreement can be ratified by
member countries of the Convention at the UN Headquarters in New York
starting April 22 2016 to 21 April 2017 and can further accession by
countries that have not done so. The deal will come entry into force
a month after at least 55 countries covering 55% of global emissions
At the adoption event of the Paris
Agreement, the COP President, Laurent Fabius said that the Paris Agreement
are fair, dynamic, durable and recognizes the distinction between state
parties. The agreement to respect the red lines of each country and didn't
satisfy all parties. However, a collective effort is believed to be better
than individual efforts.
In a national statement after the
adoption of Paris Agreement presented by the Head of Delegation
(Minister of Environment and Forestry), Indonesia said that although it
has reached an agreement, the more important things and urgent are about
implement the policies in the countries. For that, Indonesia encourage
countries to implement what has been agreed upon to achieve the goal of
tackling global warming.
Source: ditjenppi.menlhk.go.id (120116)