Breath of REDD + in COP 23
Bogor, November 27, 2017
The momentum and negotiation process of REDD+ starts from COP 11 in Montreal in 2005 known as RED (Reducing Emission from Deforestation). Then, the process continues to COP 13 in Bali being REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus). It goes on until every year until the decision at COP 19 known as "Warsaw Framework for REDD+" and the publiction of Article 5 in COP 21 (Paris Agreement). The number of decisions on REDD+ under UNFCCC is 17 decisions.
Since then, formal negotiations on REDD+ at COP have begun to decline as they have entered the implementation stage. The process that exists during SBs / COP meetings is a forum with an informal nature and in accordance with the Warsaw COP's mandate of a "review" of whether or not a special institutional setting for "coordination of support" in 2017.
The position of Indonesia since the beginning is not to support the existence of "special institutions" under UNFCCC that manage "coordination of support". The reason is that there has been a mechanism that can be used and it will only extend the red tape of REDD+ at international level.
At COP 23, REDD+ issues are on the agenda of the SBI hearing which is to review "coordination of support" for REDD+ implementation in developing countries and to discuss the results and progress of REDD+ implementation. After conducting "informal consulation" and "contact group" hearings, REDD+ trials discussing the institutional "coordination of support" were ultimately unsuccessful in obtaining text consensus as a decision.
According to Mrs. Novia Widingtyas as Indonesia’s negotiator on the agenda of Coordination of Support for Implementation of REDD+ said that "the issue discussed in this discussion is a special agency to manage REDD+ under the UNFCCC". Based on COP decision 10 / CP 19 on coordination of support it is agreed that there is a "voluntary meeting" on REDD+ which will be held annually in conjunction with the mid-year SBs trial. The focus of the discussion is on the sustainability of this "voluntary meeting" function, as developed countries want to end it by 2020.
Support in discussion includes the financial, result based payment, and implementation of REDD+ according to Warsaw Framework. Developing countries including Indonesia want that the voluntary meeting will continue. According to Ibu Novi, Indonesia does not want new institutional arrangements, such as the Adaptation Committee, and and its kind.
According to Ibu Nur Masripatin as the Chairman of the negotiator in DELRI, said that the stagnation of REDD+ discussion will not affect the implementation of REDD+ based on Result Based Payment program and other countries that do not support the existence of REDD+ special agency / institution. Indonesia recently issued Government Regulation (PP) 46/2017 on November 10, 2017, on Environmental Economic Instruments. The PP 46/2017 is the basis for developing REDD+ financing in Indonesia in the form of a Public Service Agency (BLU).
Other instruments that are the main drivers of the REDD+ program are Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) as baseline, MRV (Measuring, Reporting and Verification) System, Information on Safeguard (SIS) System, and National Registry System (SRN). Guides related to the tools are already in the finalization stage.
Minister of Environment and Forestry, said that the payment of a performance-based REDD+ program will be conducted in 2018. The Minister of Environment and Forestry Regulation (PermenLHK) on REDD+ implementation procedures in Indonesia will be published soon. In summary, the legality aspects, methodological instruments and performance records have been completed. The remainder is the implementation of REDD+ in various parts of Indonesia. The REDD+ program is the cornerstone of the forestry sector to achive NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution) emission reduction targets.